Abstract

Hyperpigmentation is a skin condition that leads to pigmented patches causing cutaneous inflammation, itching, and redness. inflammation increases the secretion and oxidation of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and leukotrienes resulting in melanin production and this melanin production causes acne, Vulgaris, contact dermatitis, eczematous dermatoses, lichen planus, psoriasis, and burning sensations. The most common cause of hyperpigmentation is photodamage to the skin from sunlight exposure.

Many people opt using topical treatments to cure Hyperpigmenatation as they include ingredients that lighten the skin and helps to cure hyperpigmentation. The application of demelan cream retinoid 0.1%, 2-4% hydroquinone, 20% azelaic acid, 1-4% kojic acid, is advisable.

 Smear Demelan Cream

Demalan cream is a composition of 2% kojic acid, 5% arbutin and, 10% glycolic acid. It’s primary purpose is to lighten up the skin affected by depigmentation or in cases of tanned sunburnt skin. The demelan in cream composed of acids possess exfoliating properties that removes dead skin cells favoring the formation of whitened skin.

Rub in Retinoids

Being a rich source of Vitamin A, retinoids are among some of the oldest OTC skincare medications used. Their small molecular structure benefits them to penetrate deep into the skin and cure the layers below your epidermis.  Retinoids, like tretinoin were first used with a combination of HQ as penetration enhancers. Retinoic acid also helps to suppress UVB-induced pigmentation by reducing tyrosinase activity.

Have Hydroquinone

Hydroquinone cream is the standard depigmentation medication or skin lightening agent. Hydroquinone remains the workhorse of hyperpigmentation and is often considered as a topical “gold” standard. It inhibits melanin synthesis and thus acts as a skin depigmentation agent. The supervised use of hydroquinone for patients suffering from hyperpigmentation has no more than a theoretical risk of ochronosis, malignancy, or other long-term safety side effects.

Apply Azelaic Acid

Azelaic acid is a naturally occurring saturated 9 carbon dicarboxylic acid that potently inhibits tyrosinase. Azelaic acid (AzA) offers optimal benefit when combined with a topical corticosteroid. Topical azelaic acid has no depigmentation effect on normally pigmented skin, it affects selectively on abnormal melanocytes, attributing to cure post-inflammatory hyperpigmented acnes. It is preferable to apply 20% AzA cream to one half of the face for 24 weeks and 0.05% of clobetasol for 8 weeks followed by 20% of AzA cream for the next 16 weeks.

Put on Kojic Acid

Kojic acid is a chelating agent produced by several fungi- Aspergillus, Acetobacter, and Penicillium that inhibits the secretion of free tyrosinase. Its primary purpose is to lighten up the patches caused by hyperpigmentation.

 

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